Agroecología: que se puede si se quiere, se puede

En relación a los argumentos banales que se presentan en cuanto a la imposibilidad de producir orgánico en torno a los centros poblados, evitando la aplicación de agrotóxicos, BIOS comparte este comunicado de prensa de Naciones Unidas.
“En lo que a la seguridad alimentaria mundial se refiere, el rendimiento de la agroecología supera ya al de la agricultura industrial de gran escala” dice el experto en alimentación de la ONU
BRUSELAS – “Los Gobiernos y las agencias internacionales deben promover urgentemente las técnicas de cultivo ecológicas para aumentar la producción de alimentos y salvar el clima” afirma Olivier De Schutter, Relator Especial de la ONU sobre el derecho a la alimentación, durante la presentación de las conclusiones del encuentro internacional de agroecología celebrado en Bruselas los días 21 y 22 de junio.
El Relator de la ONU, acompañado por 25 de los expertos de mayor renombre en el sector de la agroecología, exhortó a la comunidad internacional a cuestionar las políticas agrícolas actuales y desarrollar el potencial de la agroecología.“Hace un año, en la reunión del G20 en Italia, los Jefes de Estados se comprometieron a movilizar 22.000 millones de dólares durante un período de 3 años para mejorar la seguridad alimentaria mundial. Estas fueron muy buenas noticias pero el problema más acuciante en la reinversión en agricultura, no es el cuánto si no el cómo”, afirmó Olivier De Schutter.
En palabras del Relator Especial: “Hoy por hoy, los principales esfuerzos se centran en la inversión en tierra a gran escala – incluyendo muchos casos de acaparamiento de tierras – y en la implementación de un modelo de “Revolución Verde” que fomente la producción de alimentos a través de la mejora de las semillas, los fertilizantes químicos y maquinaria; sin embargo, se ha prestado muy poca atención a los métodos agroecológicos que han demostrado mejorar la producción de alimentos y los ingresos de los campesinos al tiempo que protegen el suelo, el agua y el clima.”
El mayor estudio hasta el momento sobre métodos agroecológicos (Jules Pretty, Universidad de Essex, Reino Unido) analizó 286 proyectos en 57 países en desarrollo, lo que representó una muestra total de 37 millones de hectárea de superficie estudiada. Los resultados mostraron que el rendimiento medio de los cultivos era del 79%. Los ejemplos concretos de “éxitos agroecológicos” abundan en toda África. En Tanzania, las provincias occidentales de Shinyanga y Tabora eran conocidas anteriormente como “el Desierto de Tanzania”. No obstante, el uso de técnicas de agrosilvicultura y procesos participativos han permitido que se rehabiliten 350.000 hectáreas de tierra en veinte años. Los beneficios por familia aumentaron de manera espectacular en 500 dólares estadounidenses al año. En 2005, se utilizaron técnicas similares en Malawi gracias a las cuales 100.000 pequeños campesinos pudieron beneficiarse en cierta medida del uso de árboles fertilizantes.
“Con más de mil millones de hambrientos en el mundo y los fenómenos climáticos extremos ante nosotros, tenemos que extender rápidamente estas técnicas sostenibles” comenta el Sr. De Schutter. “Debemos encontrar un manera de combatir a la vez el hambre en el mundo, el cambio climático y el agotamiento de los recursos naturales, aunque ello suponga complicar aún más nuestra tarea.”
“Todo lo que no vaya en esta dirección será una simple pérdida de tiempo.”
Los expertos reunidos en Bruselas identificaron las iniciativas que podrían permitir el desarrollo de enfoques agroecológicos capaces de alimentar al mundo en 2050. Su trabajo se basó en las experiencias de los países que cuentan ya con políticas en favor de la agroecología, como Cuba o Brasil; en las experiencias exitosas de diversos centros de investigación internacionales, como el Centro Mundial de Agro-silvicultura en Nairobi; y en los programas de La Vía Campesina, movimiento campesino internacional, que cuenta ya con programas de formación en agroecología.
“Podemos extender estos modelos sostenibles de agricultura y garantizar que su aplicación beneficie de manera específica a los campesinos más pobras. Lo que necesitamos ahora es la voluntad política necesaria para hacer que estos proyectos piloto de éxito se conviertan en políticas y programas nacionales”, dijo el Relator Especial de la ONU. A modo de conclusión, anunció que pediría al Comité de Seguridad Alimentaria Mundial, que con el tiempo se convertirá en el “Consejo de Seguridad” para la seguridad alimentaria, que tratase precisamente durante su sesión de octubre las políticas e iniciativas que permitirían extender y dar a conocer la agroecología. “Es la mejor opción que tenemos hoy por hoy. No podemos desperdiciarla”.
Nota a los editores:
– El seminario internacional “la contribución de los enfoques agroecológicos a la satisfacción de las necesidades mundiales de alimentos en 2050” tuvo lugar en Bruselas los días 21 y 22 de junio. Este seminario fue organizado por el Prof. Olivier De Schutter en el marco de su mandato como Relator Especial de las Naciones Unidas sobre el derecho a la alimentación, y reunió a expertos en agroecología, responsables políticos a nivel nacional e internacional y representantes de organizaciones campesinas. Los enfoques de cultivo agroecológicos incluyen la agrosilvicultura (plantar plantas y árboles en la misma parcela), el control biológico (control de las pestes y las enfermedades con predadores naturales), métodos de recogida de aguas, los cultivos intercalados, cultivos de cobertura de abonos verdes, gestión integrada de cultivos y ganadería, y otras muchas prácticas. El denominador común de todos los avances anteriormente mencionados es el uso reducido de insumos externos. Según un informe del PNUMA, si se adoptan mayoritariamente los sistemas que han demostrado su eficacia en la reducción de las emisiones, el sector de la agricultura podría neutralizar la mayor parte de sus emisiones de carbono antes de 2030 y producir alimento suficiente para una población que probablemente alcance los 9.000 millones en el 2050. Dennis Garrity, Director del Centro Mundial de Agrosilvicultura de Nairobi calculó en julio de 2009 que una implementación a escala mundial de los métodos de la agrosilvicultura podría resultar en la absorción de 50.000 millones de toneladas de CO2, esto es, casi un tercio del objetivo de reducción total de carbono para todo el planeta.
– La agricultura moderna es uno de los principales contribuidores a las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero, siendo responsable del 14% del total de las emisiones anuales, al tiempo que los cambios en el uso de la tierra (incluyendo la deforestación debido a la expansión de la agricultura) contribuyen con un 19% adicional. En cuanto a las emisiones directas en agricultura, los fertilizantes se llevan un 38% y el ganado un 31%. El Panel Intergubernamental sobre Cambio Climático ha estimado que en el Sur de África, el rendimiento de la agricultura de secano podría reducirse en un 50% entre 2000 y 2020, y que las áreas áridas o semiáridas podrían aumentar en 60 millones de hectáreas (hasta 90 millones incluso) antes de 2080.
– Olivier De Schutter fue nombrado Relator Especial sobre el derecho a la alimentación en mayo de 2008 por el Consejo de Derechos Humanos de las Naciones Unidas. Su labor es independiente de cualquier gobierno u organización.
Para más información sobre el mandato y el trabajo del Relator Especial, visite: www2.ohchr.org/english/issues/food/index.htm
Contactos de prensa:
– Olivier De Schutter (Tel. +32 488 48 20 04)
– Beatrice Quadranti (Tel. +41 22 917 9615)
– Elaine Ryan (Tel. +41 22 917 9697) o srfood@ohchr.org
Contacto especialista en BIOS: Ing. Laura De Luca lauradluca@yahoo.com
BIOS
IGJ 16109
bios_argentina@yahoo.com

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