Con el glifosato a diez metros

Con el glifosato a diez metros

 

Un proyecto de ley que ya tiene media sanción en el Senado bonaerense achica las distancias de uso del herbicida respecto de las casas habitadas. Organizaciones sociales y asambleas de pueblos fumigados denuncian que la iniciativa es inconstitucional.
La Cámara de Senadores de Buenos Aires dio media sanción a un proyecto de ley que permite fumigar con el cuestionado herbicida glifosato hasta sólo diez metros de las viviendas, reduce al mínimo las distancias de utilización de agroquímicos, desoye fallos judiciales y no se basa en ninguna evidencia científica para establecer las distancias. Organizaciones sociales y asambleas de pueblos fumigados denuncian la inconstitucionalidad del proyecto y afirman que el gobierno provincial privilegió a las empresas del sector, nucleadas en la Asociación de Productores de Siembra Directa (Aapresid) y la Cámara de empresas de agroquímicos (Casafe) por sobre la población.
El ministro de Agroindustria de Buenos Aires y ex gerente de Monsanto, Leonardo Sarquís, lo anunció a días de asumir: trabajaban en una nueva ley provincial de agroquímicos. El 6 de julio, y sin discusión mediante, el Senado bonaerense dio media sanción a una ley en línea con los pedidos empresarios: “Se prohíbe toda aplicación utilizando la técnica terrestre de todos los productos fitosanitarios, fertilizantes y otros plaguicidas comprendidos en las clases III y IV, la cual está delimitada por diez metros contados desde el límite de la zona urbana”.
Entre los productos que podrán fumigarse hasta pasos de las viviendas están el herbicida glifosato (categorizado por el IARC como “probable cancerígeno”, ubicado en el segundo escalón de peligrosidad en una escala de 1 a 5), atrazina (su principal comercializadora es la multinacional Syngenta), clorpirifos y el también cuestionado herbicida 2,4-D.
“Es un proyecto que desconoce absolutamente las denuncias y enfermedades que se dan en todo el país respecto a las fumigaciones y también ignora las evidencias científicas y legales que acreditan la necesidad de proteger al ambiente y a la salud de la población. No existe argumento ni técnico ni científico que justifique esta ley”, denunció Gabriel Arisnabarreta, ingeniero agrónomo, productor de alimentos sin venenos e integrante de la organización Ecos de Saladillo.
Arisnabarreta afirmó que lo único que privilegia este proyecto en la “búsqueda de mayor rentabilidad” de empresas. Precisó que detrás de la iniciativa están la Asociación de Siembra Directa (Aapresid), Casafe (cámara empresaria de agroquímicos, donde están todas las grandes compañías del sector), la Mesa de Enlace, “sectores del INTA” y el Ministerio de Agroindustria de Nación.
El Senasa clasifica los químicos en cinco categorías: IA (sumamente peligroso, muy tóxico, banda roja), IB (sumamente peligroso, tóxico, banda roja), II (moderadamente peligroso, banda amarilla), III (poco peligroso, banda azul) y IV (normalmente no ofrece peligro, banda verde).
La clasificación es muy cuestionada a nivel nacional e internacional porque está realizada en base a estudios de las propias empresas que comercializan los venenos y porque solo considera la toxicidad aguda (producida en el momento de la manipulación) y deja de lado la afectación crónica (por largos periodos de tiempos, por ejemplo no contempla a las familias expuestas a continuas fumigaciones, donde los químicos son más nocivos).
Diana González, de la Asamblea por la Protección de la Salud, la Vida y el Ambiente de Pergamino, consideró que la clasificación del Senasa “es falaz porque excluye de la discusión la exposición crónica a la que nos vemos sometidos los vecinos de los pueblos fumigados”.
En el proyecto se mencionan prohibiciones o “zonas de exclusión”. Fija distancias de 500 metros para fumigaciones aéreas y las reduce a 100 metros (para productos de clase IA, IB y II) y diez metros para las categorías III y IV. “Es una burla. Los más usados hoy están en las categorías III y IV, sobre ellos hay numerosos estudios científicos que tienen efectos crónicos que afectan la salud pero igual te lo echarán hasta la puerta de tu casa”, alertó Arisnabarreta.
La Corte Suprema de Buenos Aires falló en 2012 y prohibió fumigar a menos de 1000 metros de las viviendas. Fue una sentencia que protegió a María Cristina Monsalvo y Víctor Fernández (de la localidad de Alberti), que sufrían las aspersiones con glifosato, atrazina y cirpermetrina de un campo de soja vecino. El máximo tribunal de Buenos Aires citó el principio precautorio vigente en la ley: ante la posibilidad de perjuicio ambiental es necesario tomar medidas protectoras.
El proyecto con media sanción desoye el fallo judicial de la Corte Suprema. Fue impulsado por el senador Alfonso Coll Areco (del bloque Peronismo Bonaerense y presidente de la Comisión de Ambiente) y su fundamentación no cita ningún trabajo técnico ni científico que justifique las mínimas distancias. Por contraposición, en Argentina existen más de cien trabajos científicos de universidades públicas (Río Cuarto, La Plata, el Litoral, UBA y Rosario, entre otras) que dan cuenta de las consecuencias de los agrotóxicos en poblaciones.
Lucas Landívar y Juan Ignacio Pereyra son parte del colectivo Abogados de Pueblos Fumigados, espacio nacido de las comunidades afectadas por la consecuencias de la agricultura química. Afirmaron que el proyecto de ley es “inconstitucional” porque desoye legislaciones que protegen la salud y el ambiente, y explicaron que es un proyecto “regresivo” (reduce protecciones ambientales que ya están vigente en leyes anteriores). “Eso solo hecho ya confirma la inconstitucionalidad”, aseguraron los abogados y resaltaron que tampoco hubo audiencias públicas como establece la normativa vigente.
González, de la Asamblea de Pergamino, no tiene dudas: “El proyecto de ley tiene como única meta proteger los intereses empresariales del agronegocios”.

 

Fuente: Página/12
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