Córdoba: controles y educación bajaron la contaminación en verduras


Este año, no hubo casos positivos por exceso de agroquímicos en productos del Abasto. En 2009, casi la mitad superaba lo admisible. La presencia en las muestras de bacterias de origen fecal bajó del 20% al 5,5% en 15 años.
En 2009, casi la mitad de las verduras analizadas en el Mercado de Abasto a pedido de la Justicia tenía niveles de agroquímicos por encima de lo que dicta la ley. La presencia de estas sustancias ha sido asociada a problemas de salud como cáncer, malformaciones y trastornos de desarrollo.
La Justicia imputó a productores del cinturón verde y a funcionarios municipales y nacionales. Gracias al accionar de la Justicia y las advertencias del Foro Ambiental Córdoba, la situación en el mercado ha cambiado.
Este año no se detectaron casos positivos de verduras con presencia de agroquímicos. En 2015, el 2,7 por ciento de las muestras no eran aptas para el consumo. En el 2010, cuando comenzó a controlarse, la cifra fue del 15,7 por ciento.
La misma situación se da en los exámenes microbiológicos. Ya no se detectan casos de verduras con Salmonella y este año sólo el 5,5 por ciento de las muestras dio positivo para Escherichia coli , mientras que hace 16 años ese valor era del 20 por ciento.
Se trata de una bacteria de origen fecal. Una de sus cepas es la responsable del Síndrome Urémico Hemolítico.
El Laboratorio de Alimentos de la Dirección de Calidad Alimentaria realiza 15 análisis microbiológicos y de tres a cinco test de agroquímicos por semana.
Las muestras se eligen al azar entre la mercadería de los 150 quinteros del cinturón verde que ofrecen sus productos diariamente en el Mercado de Abasto. En especial, se analizan las verduras que se comen crudas.
“Cuando se detecta algún incumplimiento, los quinteros no pueden entrar más al mercado hasta que los resultados sean correctos. Eso muchas veces demora un mes, lo cual le produce una importante pérdida económica”, asegura Alina Rondini, jefa del laboratorio.
El área de Ferias y Mercados de la Municipalidad visita el predio para tratar de detectar el origen de la contaminación.
En el caso de microorganismos fecales, las causas pueden ser el riego o lavado con agua contaminada o la utilización de compost que no fue inactivado.
En los plaguicidas, que no haya una detección positiva significaque los agroquímicos se aplicaron en tiempo y forma y que no se usaron productos prohibidos.
Cada verdura tiene diferentes pesticidas autorizados y deben aplicarse en determinado momento del cultivo. Por ejemplo, para la lechuga, el Servicio Nacional de Sanidad y Calidad Agroalimentaria (Senasa) fija que deben analizarse 26 agroquímicos diferentes.
También puede suceder que el viento vuele el pesticida de un cantero con una verdura a otro cantero que tiene otra verdura diferente.

La capacitación fue clave
“Antes se utilizaban mezclas de agroquímicos que vendían en lugares sin autorización. Los productores no sabían qué productos aplicaban”, explica Rondini.
Perlo detalla que la asociación realiza capacitaciones anuales en el Mercado y talleres mensuales en los campos. También elaboraron un manual de buenas prácticas agrícolas sobre el uso de agroquímicos, la limpieza de las verduras y la contaminación microbiológica.
“Todo lo que entra al Mercado tiene una sanidad única. Somos ejemplo en el país. En otros luga­res no hay un seguimiento tan cercano”, dice Perlo.
También cambió la infraestructura de las quintas y las condiciones sanitarias de los puestos en el Mercado.
“Es imposible controlar a todos, pero la vigilancia consiste en ejercer un control constante para que los productores entiendan que deben hacer las cosas bien”, dice Rondini y agrega que es muy importante la educación y concientización de los productores.

El riesgo puede estar en otros mercados
Distribuidores. Los cordobeses también consumen verduras de otros mercados, como el San Miguel, sobre la Autopista a Villa Carlos Paz. No lo controla la Municipalidad porque está fuera del ejido urbano. “También hay distribuidores que pueden comprar verduras de otros sitios, pero también los controlamos”, dice Rondini.
Riesgo. La funcionaria alerta sobre la venta de productos agroecológicos orgánicos, que se realiza por internet en forma de bolsones. “Pueden ser un escenario de riesgo porque no tienen ningún control”, dice la experta.

Fuente: La Voz del Interior


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