El impacto de los agrotóxicos

El impacto de los agrotóxicos

 

Un informe de la relatora especial sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación de la ONU, Hilal Elver, responsabiliza a los agrotóxicos por la muerte de 200 mil personas al año y cuestiona la idea de que sin ellos no es posible alimentar.
“Hemos llegado a un punto de inflexión en la agricultura. El modelo agrícola dominante resulta sumamente problemático, no solo por el daño que causan los plaguicidas, sino también por los efectos de estos en el cambio climático, la pérdida de diversidad biológica y la incapacidad para asegurar una soberanía alimentaria”, afirmó el mayor organismo de Naciones Unidas (ONU) referido al derecho a la alimentación. En un duro informe, desmintió que los agrotóxicos sean necesarios para producir alimentos, los responsabilizó por la muerte de al menos 200 mil personas al año, denunció el lobby empresario y confirmó el impacto de los agroquímicos en la salud y el ambiente.
El Relator Especial sobre el Derecho a la Alimentación es el ámbito especializado de la ONU para abordar la situación del acceso a los alimentos, nutrición, modelos productivos y necesidades, desde una perspectiva de derechos humanos y multidisciplinario. Al frente está la especialista turca Hilal Elver, que presentó su último documento ante el Consejo de DD.HH.de la ONU.
“La producción agrícola se ha incrementado. Ello se ha logrado a costa de la salud humana y el medio ambiente, y al mismo tiempo el aumento de la producción no ha logrado eliminar el hambre en el mundo. La dependencia de plaguicidas es una solución a corto plazo que menoscaba el derecho a una alimentación adecuada y el derecho a la salud de las generaciones presentes y futuras”, afirma el escrito de Naciones Unidas, y al mismo tiempo, desmiente que sean necesarios químicos y transgénicos para acabar con el hambre (como suelen publicitar las empresas): “Sin utilizar productos químicos tóxicos, o utilizando un mínimo de ellos, es posible producir alimentos más saludables y ricos en nutrientes, con mayores rendimientos a largo plazo, sin contaminar y sin agotar los recursos medioambientales”.
El documento (“Informe de la Relatora Especial sobre el derecho a la alimentación”) contó con la redacción del Relator Especial de Sustancias y Desechos Peligrosos, precisa que al menos 200.000 personas mueren al año por intoxicación aguda y el 99 por ciento suceden en países en vías de desarrollo.
El trabajo confirma los efectos de los agrotóxicos en la salud, hecho negado sistemáticamente por las empresas y periodistas del agro. “Las mujeres embarazadas que están expuestas a plaguicidas corren mayor riesgo de sufrir abortos espontáneos y partos prematuros, y sus bebés, de sufrir malformaciones congénitas. Estudios han constatado la presencia de diversos plaguicidas en el cordón umbilical, probando la existencia de una exposición prenatal”, afirma el trabajo y específica que la exposición a plaguicidas de las mujeres embarazadas lleva aparejado un mayor riesgo de leucemia infantil, autismo y problemas respiratorios.
Otros efectos en la salud que confirma: cáncer, alzheimer, parkinson, trastornos hormonales, problemas de desarrollo, neurológicos y esterilidad.
Los especialistas de Naciones Unidas no tienen dudas de que los agroquímicos “implican un costo considerable para los gobiernos y tienen consecuencias desastrosas para el medio ambiente, la salud humana y la sociedad en su conjunto, afectando a los derechos humanos”. Y remarca: “Las investigaciones científicas confirman los efectos adversos de los plaguicidas”. Al mismo tiempo, apunta al rol de las grandes empresas productoras: “Existe una negación sistemática, alimentada por la agroindustria y la industria de los plaguicidas, de la magnitud de los daños provocados por estas sustancias químicas, y las tácticas agresivas y poco éticas empleadas en el ámbito de la mercadotecnia”.
Toma como referencia la situación del glifosato, utilizado en la producción de soja transgénica, maíz y algodón, entre otros. “Ha sido presentado como menos tóxico que los herbicidas tradicionales pero existe una considerable división de opiniones acerca de su efecto. Estudios han señalado efectos negativos en la diversidad biológica, la flora y fauna, y el contenido en nutrientes del suelo. En 2015, la OMS anunció que el glifosato era un probable cancerígeno”. Y recuerda que los estudios de toxicidad de las empresas “no analizan los múltiples efectos crónicos relacionados con la salud (solo abordan los efectos agudos, de corto plazo)”.
El Relator de Derecho a la Alimentación es uno de los pocos espacios de Naciones Unidas que no es dominado por el lobby de las empresas transgénicas. El informe precisa que tres empresas (Bayer-Monsanto, Dow-Dupont, Syngenta-ChemChina) dominan el 65 por ciento de las ventas mundiales de agroquímicos y el 61 por ciento del mercado de semillas. “Las transnacionales ejercen un extraordinario poder sobre la agenda regulatoria, las iniciativas legislativas y la investigación agroquímica a nivel mundial”, advierte.

 

Fuente: Página/12
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