Los delitos ambientales podrán ser juzgados como crímenes contra la humanidad

los-delitos-ambientales-podran-ser-juzgados-como-crimenes-contra-la-humanidad

 

La Corte Penal Internacional perseguirá el acaparamiento de tierras o la explotación ilegal de los recursos por parte de empresas y gobiernos que afecta a miles de personas.
Los gobiernos o individuos responsables de delitos contra el medio ambiente, el acaparamiento de tierras o la explotación ilegal de los recursos naturales podrán ser, a partir de ahora, perseguidos y juzgados por la legislación internacional.
La Corte Penal Internacional (CPI), el tribunal internacional permanente encargado de juzgar casos de crímenes de agresión, de guerra, de lesa humanidad y genocidio, ha incluido estos nuevos criterios entre los delitos de su competencia, en un documento que se hizo público la semana pasada y que ha sido aplaudido por las organizaciones de derechos humanos.
“El impacto de los crímenes puede evaluarse a la luz de, entre otras cosas, el aumento de la vulnerabilidad de las víctimas, el terror causado en consecuencia, o el daño social, económico o medioambiental causado a las comunidades afectadas. En este contexto, la Oficina prestará especial consideración a la persecución de los crímenes comprometidos a través del Estatuto de Roma o que tengan como resultado la destrucción del medio ambiente, la explotación ilegal de los recursos naturales o el despojo ilegal de las tierras”, señala la Corte Penal Internacional.
Aunque la iniciativa no supone una extensión formal de la jurisdicción de la Corte, sí amplía los ya de por sí estrechos márgenes en los que actúa este tribunal, abriendo la puerta a que los delitos contra la naturaleza, que tienen consecuencias directas sobre comunidades enteras, puedan ser considerados también como crímenes contra la humanidad.
Hasta ahora la CPI, con sede en La Haya y que se fundó en 2002 tras los genocidios de Yugoslavia y Ruanda, se había centrado en crímenes muy concretos que han tenido lugar en épocas de guerra. Pero la repercusión cada vez mayor que están teniendo para miles de personas los delitos contra el medio ambiente en entornos de paz ha hecho que la Corte incluya ahora estos nuevos criterios.
Según la organización Global Witness, que ha realizado varias investigaciones sobre estos casos en los últimos años, en 2015 fueron asesinadas de media tres personas cada semana por intentar defender su tierra del robo y las industrias extractivas, en una cifra récord. La mayoría murieron por conflictos derivados de la minería, seguidos de la agroindustria, las presas hidroeléctricas y la tala. Y en un 90% de los casos, los asesinatos jamás se resuelven.
Para hacerse una idea de las dimensiones que está adquiriendo el problema, al menos 38,9 millones de hectáreas han sido arrendadas a empresas o están en proceso de negociación desde el año 2000, según Land Matrix Project, una organización que recopila, compara y analiza los datos disponibles sobre la compra y venta de tierras.
“Expulsar a las comunidades de sus tierras y destrozar el medio ambiente se ha convertido en una forma aceptada de hacer negocios en muchos países pobres, pero ricos en recursos. La decisión de la CPI muestra que la impunidad está llegando a su fin. Los directivos de las empresas y los políticos cómplices del empoderamiento violento de la tierra, arrasando bosques tropicales o envenenado los recursos de agua, pronto podrían verse sometidos a juicio en La Haya junto a criminales de guerra y dictadores”, señala Gillian Caldwell, director ejecutivo de Global Witness, que denuncia que hasta ahora la Corte no estaba investigando las “atrocidades masivas cometidas en nombre del desarrollo”.
No obstante, la Corte Penal Internacional sólo puede juzgar a personas físicas. Pese a los muchos casos, actualmente no existen instancias jurídicas internacionales ante las que denunciar a las empresas por los casos de violaciones de derechos humanos o al medio ambiente. El Consejo de Derechos Humanos de la ONU adoptó en 2014, a propuesta de Ecuador y Sudáfrica, una resolución para crear un instrumento jurídicamente vinculante que regule la actividad de las empresas transnacionales, pero las trabas por parte de los países inversores lo han impedido.
Almudena Moreno, de Alianza por la Solidaridad, señala que “el hecho de que la Corte Penal Internacional sentencie sobre estos delitos ayudará a reforzar la necesidad de contar con una normativa internacional que sea vinculante, dado que existirá ya una entidad internacional en la que poder denunciar”.
La ONG ha denunciado, entre otros, un proyecto hidroeléctrico sobre el río indígena Cahabón, en Guatemala, por parte de la empresa ACS, presidida por Florentino Pérez.

Fuente: Público (España)

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