Los plásticos sin bisfenol A también pueden causar problemas en la salud

Los plásticos sin bisfenol A también pueden causar problemas en la salud

 

Mucho se ha hablado en los últimos años sobre el bisfenol A (BPA) y mucha polémica se ha generado al respecto de si este compuesto utilizado en la fabricación de plásticos tiene o no consecuencias adversas para la salud. Tanto es así que el año pasado tras la publicación de un informe que apuntaba a la preocupación sobre los efectos del BPA en el sistema inmunológico de los fetos y los niños pequeños, la Autoridad Europea para la Seguridad de los Alimentos formó un grupo de expertos internacionales para revisar y evaluar nuevas pruebas científicas sobre dichas repercusiones.
Diversas investigaciones a lo largo de los últimos años han encontrado que la exposición de del BPA tiene consecuencias negativas en la salud.
“Estudios en animales han demostrado que el bisfenol A (BPA) es un disruptor endocrino que puede tener efectos nocivos en la salud”, afirma a EL MUNDO Maribel Casas, investigadora del Instituto de Salud Global de Barcelona (ISGlobal). En ISGlobal estudian los efectos potenciales que puede tener la exposición a BPA durante la época prenatal ya que es el periodo de mayor susceptibilidad a las exposiciones ambientales. Estos estudios se han desarrollado dentro del proyecto nacional INMA (Infancia y Medio Ambiente) que reclutó a 657 embarazadas de la ciudad de Sabadell entre 2004 y 2006. Los investigadores determinaron las concentraciones de BPA en muestras de orina de las madres durante el embarazo y vieron que la exposición prenatal a BPA podía aumentar el riesgo de padecer obesidad y asma en la edad infantil. “Los efectos en el neurodesarrollo también se han estudiado pero los resultados no son tan concluyentes”, especifica Casas.
Ahora un nuevo estudio experimental, realizado únicamente en ratones, ha querido ir más allá. La investigación publicada en la revista ‘Nature Communication’ -elaborada por investigadores de la Universidad de Pekín y de la Universidad de Shenzhen (ambas en China); y por la Universidad Farmacéutica de Gifu y la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Suzuka (ambas en Japón)- ha evaluado el fluorine-9-bisfenol (BHPF), un compuesto utilizado como sustituto del BPA. Este estudio realizado en animales demuestra que el BHPF puede tener actividad anti-estrogénica. “Este trabajo estudia si el compuesto BHPF, encargado de sustituir al BPA y presente en los envases llamados “libres de BPA” por ejemplo, es un compuesto inocuo o puede tener actividad estrogénica”, explica Casas.
Según apunta Ricardo J. Bosch, de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Alcalá, el estudio ha demostrado que las botellas de plástico libres de BFA analizadas liberaban BHPF y que este tenía actividad antiestrogénica.
“El efecto antiestrogénico ha sido demostrado tanto en células como en animales de experimentación. El útero de estos animales presentaba bajo peso, atrofia del endometrio y efectos adversos en el embarazo aún a dosis menores de las que se relacionaron con riesgo en el caso del BPA. Por otra parte, los autores encontraron también la presencia de BHPF en el plasma del 7% de individuos que bebían regularmente de botellas de plástico”.
Sin embargo y pese a estos resultados, los autores son cautos a la hora de presentar sus datos y concluyen que es necesario estudiar la actividad anti-estrogénica de los compuestos libres de BPA, así como realizar futuros estudios toxicológicos sobre los efectos del BHPF en humanos.
Para el profesor Bosch, esta investigación aporta datos muy importantes que enumera en cuatro puntos: “En primer lugar es que el significado de desarrollar plásticos libres de BPA, a pesar de su bajo costo de producción, está claramente relacionado a los numerosos efectos adversos hallados. En segundo lugar que el nuevo plástico estudiado, el BHPF, lamentablemente, también es un disruptor endocrino en este caso en sentido opuesto al del BPA; posee efecto antiestrogénico -es decir antagoniza el efecto de los estrógenos; precisamente por ello -y en tercer lugar- perturba el embarazo donde los estrógenos son especialmente importantes. Y por último, aunque el BPA no ha sido aún prohibido, la búsqueda de un plástico inerte y carente por tanto de efectos adversos parece que no hecho más que comenzar”.
Por todos estos motivos, Bosch señala a la población que “al igual que en nuestra cultura actual se intenta cuidar el medio ambiente y prevenir el cambio climático, así como promover el mantenimiento de la salud por medio del ejercicio físico reglado y una dieta saludable, sería cuanto menos deseable mantener nuestro organismo libre de químicos industriales como el BPA”. Del mismo modo, concluye este profesor que es relevante “la no conveniencia de reutilizar envases plásticos y muy especialmente no calentarlos ni poner líquidos caliente dado que esta bien demostrado que aumenta la liberación de bisfenoles del plástico”.

 

 

Fuente: El Mundo (España)

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