Rarezas Nucleares en Argentina



“…Que el mar está agonizando,
que no hay quien confie en su hermano,
que la tierra cayó en manos de unos locos con carnet.
Que el mundo es de peaje y experimental…”


Juan Manuel Serrat

Hace apenas cuatro años, una investigación periodística del diario Perfil revelaba que el diseño de la central nuclear Atucha II era anterior al desastre de Chernobyl y no cumplía con las normas de seguridad que se asumieron en el mundo desde 1986. Una reformulación del proyecto tendría un valor superior a 700 millones de dólares. Atucha II fue diseñada en los 70 y se comenzó a construir en 1980. Paralizada entre 1984 y 1992, y desde 1994 hasta la presidencia Kirchner. Su diseño no contempló, por ejemplo, qué sucedería si uno de los conductos de combustible radiactivo se rompiera enteramente. Apenas si tiene en cuenta un daño del 10% de la superficie, uno de los aspectos que han actualizado a la normativa internacional. El diseño original fue realizado por Siemens, que ha abandonado hace años el mundo nuclear. Y Nucleoeléctrica Argentina S.A. (NaSa) no tiene antecedentes como para realizar un rediseño.
Hoy, el gobierno, no habla del tema.

En el informe del diario Perfil se reproducen declaraciones off the record de técnicos de CNEA: “Así como está diseñada, Atucha II no podría funcionar ni en Canadá, ni en Alemania, ni en los EE.UU.” “El principal (probema) es el extrañísimo sistema de apagado: comienza a apagarse pero luego se inicia de nuevo… es muy raro, como un freno que frena pero sólo un poco”. “Otro problema es que, en vez de cambiar el sistema, siguen avanzando (en la construcción). Las autoridades de la CNEA y de NaSa convencieron al Gobierno de que se puede seguir construyendo así, pero lo cierto es que muchos profesionales ya advertimos de este problema. Además, se nos presiona laboralmente para que dejemos de hablar del tema”. Nicolás Riga, responsable en la ARN para la licencia de Atucha II, aseguró: “Deberán buscar a alguien competente para que lo haga. Si no, nosotros o en última instancia la IAEA impediremos que comience a funcionar”.
En diciembre de 2007 el director de la Agencia Internacional de Energía Atómica visitó Argentina y solicitó que su organismo verifique la seguridad de la central atómica. El Presidente en persona le dijo que si. Pero… no se realizó jamás. Por ello, el 10 de enero de 2008, Tomihiro Taniguchi, director general del Departamento de Seguridad Nuclear de la IAEA, le dirigió una carta firmada por el director general de IAEA, Mohamed El-Baradei al embajador argentino en Viena, Eugenio María Curia, para solicitar al Gobierno argentino que acceda a la visita de expertos en seguridad a revisar Atucha II, para adecuarla al inciso 6 del art. III del Estatuto de IAEA, que señala “proteger la salud y reducir al mínimo el peligro para la vida y la propiedad”.
Nuevamente el diario Perfil publicaba un reportaje realizado a Raúl Racana, titular de la Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, en referencia a por qué el gobierno nacional nada respondía a los pedidos de la IAEA. Entre otras declaraciones puede leerse que Racana señala la “obsesividad que tienen por controlarnos”, “La gente que está en la IAEA no nos termina de gustar”. “Uno no tiene por qué andar difundiendo a todo el mundo el esfuerzo tecnológico que hace. No podemos permitir que miren todo lo que se les dé la gana.” “¿por qué me van a venir a ver a mí y no a los reactores brasileños?”

Desde hace tantos años, desde BIOS nos preguntamos:

¿Por qué no se asumió esa auditoría externa de Atucha II ante la IAEA?
¿Se han actualizado los diseños de los sistemas de seguridad? Qué empresa lo ha hecho si acaso se ha hecho?
¿Es posible que la IAEA no apruebe la puesta en funcionamiento de Atucha II?
¿Hay diseños similares a Atucha II en otros países?
¿Por qué la ARN señala que no autorizaría la puesta en marcha de Atucha II?

Quien esto escribe intenta, infructuosamente desde hace exactamente dos años, realizar un reportaje a quien al ARN designe sobre estos temas.
“Alguien” (pues la misiva es anónima) respondió el 21 de enero de 2010 un cortés mensaje, relatándome la suma de seguridades que debían tranquilizarme y haciendo un paralelismo entre las características técnicas de Atucha I y Chernobyl. Según este interlocutor anónimo (pero gentil) de la ARN, todo está bien y en buenas manos.
Sin embargo, nada menciona que, tal como puede revisarse en cualquier web, en 1983, una serie de incidentes producidos en Atucha 1, llevó a calificar a la central como de “ruinosidad completa”. El CALIN (Consejo Asesor para el Licenciamiento de Instalaciones Nucleares) en 1986 señaló en su nforme que Atucha I se hallaba “en una situación no satisfactoria, que con el tiempo tiende a deteriorarse aún más”. En 1984, otro incidente detuvo la bomba de agua de alimentación del circuito de enfriamiento del reactor. También en 1985 y 1987 se denunciaron desperfectos, y en este último año, el 22 de diciembre, se derramaron 50 toneladas de agua pesada durante los tets de presurización. Debido a esa fuga radiactiva, la central estuvo parada 150 días. Poco después, en 1992, hubo pérdida de potencia del reactor por recalentamiento del líquido moderador que afectó la refrigeración.
Tampoco responde a mi inquietud acerca del famoso eslógan de que se trata de la energía más barata. Mi consulta es sobre el cálculo del costo del kilovatio de energía instalado, ya que en él debiera incluírse al costo de operación de la central, el costo de prospección, operación de minas, clausura y saneamiento (que la CNEA no ha hecho en al menos 8 emplazamientos, en las últimas décadas, según la propia CNEA), así como transporte, auditorías, mediciones, custodia y clausura al menos por 500 años, como el PRAMU estima en Malargüe. ¿Lo incluyen? ¿qué valor dá? ¿se puede seguir afirmando que es el Kw/h más barato? ¿O seguimos haciendo la trampita de olvidar esos “detalles menores”?
También consulto acerca de algo que ví en mi visita al PRAMU (Programa de remediación de minería del uranio) en Malargüe. Los técnicos que me asistieron allí, aseguraron la protección radiológica de los empleados, pero… no cuentan siquiera con dosímetros, sino con medidores de radón, que han llegado década y media tarde al sitio, ya que fueron recibidos a finales de 2009. Por añadidura, al preguntar sobre los impactos regionales de la remoción de la meseta de colas, se me asegurò que no existían evidencias de problemáticas sanitarias. Pero al avanzar en la investigación, confirmé que no existe ningún tipo de dato epidemiológico ni registro que se le parezca. Y que las patologías y decesos se producen en su gran mayoría en las ciudades más cercanas adonde las personas van a atenderse a centros de complejidad, por lo cual, no hay historiales clínicos que puedan afirmar los datos de inocuidad de la existencia y operatoria del encapsulamiento.
Asi las cosas, con más dudas que certezas, y siendo que CNEA no está respondiendo a requisitorias periodísticas desde el momento en que colapsó el reactor en Japón. ¿Podemos estar tranquilos esperando la inauguración de una central nuclear que ha sido negada a una auditoría externa?
Para los apologetas del átomo, Japón era un ejemplo esgrimido por su seriedad, tecnología y responsabilidad. Pero una vez sucedida la catástrofe, surgieron a la luz noticias de corrupción en la empresa nipona de energía nuclear, controles no hechos, solicitudes internacionales de infomes no respondidos.
El mundo nuclear se sostiene en ocultamientos, minimizaciones y contradicciones. Lo que asusta, indudablemente, es que en sus manos hay elementos que pueden poner a un país al borde del colapso.
El planeta está retrocediendo, cancelando la extensión de vida útil de sus centrales y paralizando las construcciones de nuevas plantas. Europa detuvo muchos programas. EEUU revisa sus usinas. Chile se levanta contra la posibilidad de nuclearizarse.
El gobierno argentino, en cambio, guarda silencio. Un absoluto silencio. Negándose como desde que la Junta Militar creó el Plan Nuclear Argentino, a abrir debate público sobre la pertinencia de este tipo de energía, a los habitantes que la rechazamos.

 

Lic. Silvana Buján
silvanabujan@yahoo.com.ar
www.programa-ecos.com.ar
(0223) 479-2474 – (0223) 155019937
BIOS Argentina
Miembro de RENACE
Miembro de GAIA
Miembro de la Coalición Ciudadana Antiincineración

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