Silvana Buján: “Para quién y para qué generamos energía es un debate que nos debemos”

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Tras la publicación del libro Energía nuclear. Una historia de engaños, ocultamiento y abandono, el programa radial Bajo Consumo, que se emite por Radio Sur 88.3, entrevistó a la Silvana Buján, autora del libro e integrante de la ONG ambientalista BIOS y de la Red Nacional de Acción Ecologista (RENACE).
La energía nuclear nació hace setenta años de la mano del desarrollo de armas atómicas. Para producir electricidad, las centrales nucleares utilizan la fisión nuclear, a partir de la cual los átomos se separan para formar átomos más pequeños, liberando, de esta forma, energía. Uno de los principales subproductos que se obtienen (y el cual es sumamente necesario para el desarrollo de este tipo de armas) es el plutonio, el cual no se encuentra en la naturaleza, sino que se produce como resultado de la fisión.
Por otro lado, el uranio es un elemento central para el desarrollo de este tipo de energía, ya que es el combustible básico de los reactores nucleares. Tal como explicó la autora del libro, para extraerlo, dado que ya no existen concentraciones detiformes, debe llevarse adelante un proceso similar al de la megaminería de oro, sólo que en lugar de emplear cianuro se utiliza el ácido sulfúrico. La minería de uranio genera una gran cantidad de residuos tóxicos, por lo cual, si las minas no son remediadas, la contaminación del aire puede expandirse por muchos kilómetros. Además, tal como se plantea en el libro, el uranio genera tres tipos de radiación: los rayos alfas -los más peligrosos, aunque no poseen gran poder de penetración-, los rayos beta y los rayos gamma, los cuales tienen un gran poder de penetración.
En la Argentina existen en la actualidad tres plantas nucleares: Atucha I, Atucha II, y Embalse Río Tercero, que actualmente se encuentra cerrada por cumplir su vida útil. “Chernobyl tenía una tecnología muy parecida a la de Atucha II, la cual tiene algunos pequeños retoques a punta de presiones de la Asociación Internacional de Energía Atómica. Atucha I puede tener serios problemas, ya que una fábrica belga sacó un comunicado diciendo que todas las vasijas que habían vendido podían tener serias fallas, porque tenían burbujas dentro de la estructura del acero y eso podía fragilizarla. Primero la Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (CNEA) dijo que no era esa vasija la que habían comprado. Luego, cuando se presentó la documentación de compra, tuvieron que decir que era verdad”, subrayó Buján.
Desde el Estado y sectores vinculados a este tipo de desarrollo energético, la energía nuclear se presenta como la más barata y accesible. Sin embargo, tal como planteó Buján, este argumento es una falacia: “CNEA no incluye dentro de la suma que debieran hacer todo lo previo a la llegada del combustible nuclear a una central y luego del desmantelamiento de la central en adelante. Eso tiene un costo descomunalmente alto. Esos residuos que van quedar van a ser depositados en repositorios, conservando su peligrosidad, tanto radioactiva como tóxica, durante miles de años. Si hiciéramos la cuenta, como lo hicimos de la mano de un equipo alemán, vamos a encontrar que el kilovatio hora resulta ser el más caro de la historia”.
Tampoco en el cálculo se tienen en cuenta la remediación de los pasivos ambientales que deja esta actividad. La CNEA difundió un estudio en el cual se detectaron siete sitios mineros que poseen pasivos ambientales: Don Otto, en Salta, cuya explotación se llevó a cabo entre 1955 y 1981, y en donde se encuentran 390 mil toneladas de residuos; Los Adobes, Chubut, operó durante 1977 y 1981, dejando 155 mil toneladas de residuos; Los Gigantes, Córdoba, posee un pasivo de 2.200.000 toneladas de residuos; La Estela, San Luis, 70 mil toneladas de residuos; Malargüe, Mendoza, 700 mil toneladas de residuos; Sierra Pintada, Mendoza, 1.700.000 toneladas de residuos, 5340 tambores radioactivos y 153 mil metros cúbicos de residuos líquidos; y, por último, Los Colorados, en la Rioja, 135 mil toneladas de colas y un millón de toneladas de estériles.
“La CNEA asumió que tenía estos pasivos ambientales, por lo que pidió dinero varias veces a organismos internacionales para hacer el saneamiento, pero prácticamente no hizo nada. Nosotros visitamos estos sitios y solamente en uno se ha estado trabajando, en la mina de Cerro Huemul, en Malargüe, abandonada desde hace ya más de 30 años y que ha venido trayendo problemáticas a los habitantes. Viven en una suerte de meseta de residuos radioactivos de media y baja actividad, abandonados a su suerte”, afirmó la integrante de BIOS.
De esta forma, los cálculos que se realizan para avanzar en el desarrollo de energía atómica dejan por fuera toda una serie de costos que deben ser afrontados. “Es la energía más cara, más riesgosa, más criminalmente oculta, y, debajo de todo esto, el viejo debate de para quién estamos generando energía, para qué estamos generando energía, ¿se la vamos a dar a la Barrick Gold, se la vamos a dar a Bajo la Alumbrera, que son aspiradoras de energía, o la vamos a usar para desarrollar nuestro país? Ese es un debate político que nos debemos”, finalizó Buján.

Fuente: notas.org.ar
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